Russia – Ukraine War | Peace Conference in Switzerland | Keys to meeting that ended without consensus: 12 states did not sign final document | Vladimir Putin | Volodymyr Zelensky Brazil | Mexico | BRICS | the world

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A total of 92 countries participated in the meeting held on Saturday and Sunday at a luxury hotel BurgenstockIn the Swiss Alps, it sought to foster common understanding on the road to a just and lasting peace. Ukraine and discuss the proposal of the Ukrainian President, Volodymyr ZelenskyTo conclude Gera Launched by the Russian President in February 2022 Vladimir Putin.

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Of the total participants, More than 60 countries were led by their presidents and heads of stateAmong them are Argentina’s Javier Mille and Ecuador’s Daniel Noboa. Vice President Kamala Harris attended for the United States.

Russia He was not invited to the appointment, nor did he attend. China.

In his final appearance before the media, Zelensky He wanted to downplay the lack of unanimity, saying there were countries that “did not sign” the declaration but that the declaration was “open for them to join”. Attending the ordination is, to a certain extent, a way of “unification,” he said.

“We have had the participation of presidents and representatives at various levels… It was a success, and Russia did everything it could to prevent some from comingBut I thank them for expressing their freedom,” the President said.

In his final statement, Zelensky He was accompanied by his Swiss consort Viola Amherd; President of the European Commission, Ursula van der Leyen; President of Chile Gabriel Boric; Representative of Ghana, Nana Akufo-Addo; and by the Prime Minister of Canada, Justin Trudeau.

Volodymyr Zelensky was surrounded by other world leaders at the end of the summit in Switzerland.  (EFE/EPA/Michael Buholzer).

Volodymyr Zelensky was surrounded by other world leaders at the end of the summit in Switzerland. (EFE/EPA/Michael Buholzer).

/ Michael Buholzer / Pool

What does the document say?

The participating leaders were divided into different tables and they discussed Three themes: Nuclear security, food insecurity and the case of children abducted by Russia in areas of Ukraine it invades and controls.

The last two page document asks Safe use of nuclear energy, environmental considerations. It is also argued that Threats to use nuclear weapons are unacceptable.

Further, it has been requested Ukraine Have “full sovereignty” over the nuclear power plant ZaporozhyeIt is the largest in Europe occupied by Russian forces almost since the beginning of the war.

Referring to World food securityCountries declare that attacks against merchant ships, civilian ports and port infrastructure along the entire route of the Black and Azov Seas are “unacceptable”.

“Food security should not become a weapon in any way. “Ukrainian agricultural products should be delivered safely and freely to interested third countries,” the document says.

And that is done Call for the release of all prisoners of war through exchange operations Between those in the hands of Russia and Ukraine.

An explicit reference is made to Ukrainian children Deported and illegally displaced, who To return to Ukraine.

Which countries have not signed the document?

India, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates were represented by foreign ministers or lower level ambassadors. They are among the twelve countries that have not signed the final document. Neither did he Brazil.

At this point, it should be noted that Brazil, India and South Africa are part of the group of emerging economies, along with Russia and China. Brix.

What did Zelensky say?

Zelensky announced that Countries in Switzerland agreed to continue working towards a second peace summit. “We have agreed to start working in ad hoc groups after the summit on specific ideas, proposals and improvements that can restore security in various aspects…that will take months, not years,” he said.

The president of Ukraine also said this Russia and its leaders are “not ready for a fair peace”.

Russia “If you leave our territory we can talk peace tomorrow,” he insisted ZelenskyAfter the Russian President, Vladimir PutinHe declared himself open to dialogue, but under conditions that Kyiv would not accept.

Zelensky He also mentioned Ukraine Not China’s “enemy” when answering a question about its relations with Beijing.

The President acknowledged that many countries wanted it Russia Represented at the summit, however, he said “the majority will not want to shake hands” with the Russian delegation, and pledged in February 2022 that Moscow had “stopped all peace efforts before launching a full-scale invasion”.

War in Ukraine on June 13, 2024.  (AFP).

War in Ukraine on June 13, 2024. (AFP).

“Current devolution is not considered”

Will the summit have a tangible impact on ending the war? Accordingly Mayte Dongo SueiroMaster in European and International Studies from the European Institute – CIFE and Professor of International Relations at PUCP, this objective is difficult to achieve, considering that neither China nor Russia participated in the Swiss event.

“Throughout history, we must consider that places that generally functioned to maintain international stability, and all multilateral organizations created after World War II, were based on this premise. Decentralization should be consideredI believe that one of the problems that exists is who has the power, what are the forces of the moment The summit did not consider the current devolution. He is particularly considering Traditional powersBut the power sharing that existed 70 years ago is no longer there. This goes beyond what Russia has done, but this country should consider seeking peace because it is a relevant actor. China should also be considered,” Tongo says in the conversation Trade.

Both Russia and China have also presented plans to achieve peace from their own perspective, the analyst says.

“Clearly, Neither Russia nor Ukraine can achieve all their agendas. It is impossible and no one wants to give. The key is to understand what points are negotiable. For example, I think it is easier to negotiate the issue of Kiev wanting to be a part of NATO … It is more difficult to give up territory, if Ukrainian troops leave, the occupied territories are accepted. Do the Russians belong to them now?” Tongo asked himself.

Comment…

Neither Russia nor Ukraine is in a strong position to negotiate

Por Francesco Tucci,

International researcher

I do not believe that the summit will have an impact on reaching an end to the war, as both Ukraine and the West want to preserve the country’s territorial integrity, and the rejection of the Russian proposal. So, if you consider the final declaration, which was not signed by many states like the BRICS, it is a document that unites the coalition supporting Ukraine and nothing more.

In addition, Zelensky has said that the Russian government is not ready for peace talks and that Kyiv is not ready to cede territory to Russia.

Thus, positions are crystallized at the summit. It was a predictable disappointment, as it turned out that Russia did not want to back down even a millimeter.

The situation also depends on the battlefield. As we are in a situation where there is no real progress by either the Ukrainian forces or the Russians, progressing only in slow motion and with heavy human losses, there is a reality that a balance has yet to be broken.

Under that premise, Putin lacks a solid position to negotiate what he wants. But Ukraine is also in trouble because if the flow of arms does not continue, the ability of its forces to confront the Russians will be disrupted.

If we look at how the conflict is developing, we will conclude that Russia has not achieved any strategic objectives since 2022, and therefore cannot negotiate. Crimea has already been annexed since 2014, and part of the Donbass is under its control due to the hybrid war that began in 2014 and will become regular in 2022. Zelensky as president did not achieve regime change. So negotiations with Putin need victories first. For now, neither Ukraine nor Russia is in a strong position to negotiate.

The balance will be broken after the election in the US. We already know that if Donald Trump wins, he has plans to pressure Ukraine to cede part of its territory to Russia.

That election will determine whether military and economic support for Ukraine continues or is cut. For this reason, we must understand the position of Emmanuel Macron in France, who announced the deployment of French soldiers in Ukraine. Macron is considering a scenario without US support once Trump is elected. Therefore the European component of NATO should support Ukraine.

Putin’s tough conditions

The President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, meets with the heads of the Russian Foreign Ministry in Moscow on June 14, 2024.

Russian President Vladimir Putin meets with heads of the Russian Foreign Ministry in Moscow on June 14, 2024. (Photo by Natalia Kolesnikova / AFP).

/ Natalia Kolesnikova

On Friday, Putin A series is listed conditions To end the war in Ukraine.

He said that Zelensky government should do Russia is fully withdrawing its forces from annexed Ukrainian territories Since starting its invasion in 2022, this Donetsk, Lugansk, Kherson and Zaporizhia.

He also mentioned that Ukraine should abandon its efforts to join the NATO military alliance.

He insisted that Ukraine should go through a process “Militarization” and to obtain a “neutral” position between the West and Russia.

And, he said, their presence is essential Abolition of all economic sanctions The West has been imposing on Russia since the start of the war.

“As soon as kyiv announces that it is ready for such a conclusion… the order to start the ceasefire and negotiations will come from our side immediately, that is, in the same minute,” Putin said.

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