The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards prestigious Nobel Prizes to different fields each year, was awarded to American Claudia Goldin for her contributions to explaining the causes and proving the existence of the income gap between men and women. In Argentina, they celebrate recognition from feminist economics twice: during the first presidential debate last Sunday, one of the most competitive candidates, Javier Mili denied income inequality between men and women.
He Time Played in favor of feminism: a week after Javier Mille told more than 4 million people (42 ratings points) that he had empirical evidence to deny the gender pay gap, “if they were averaged out by occupation, inequality would disappear”; American researcher Claudia Goldin It was recognized with a million dollars, an 18 carat gold medal, a diploma and above all an honour. Nobel Prize in Economics for providing evidence on the income gap between men and women.
“Claudia Goldin’s research has given us a new and often surprising view of the historical and contemporary role of women in the labor market,” explained the Nobel Prize jury. One of Goldin’s major innovations was organizing, correcting, and reconstructing existing data on women’s employment rates in the United States. “These are mostly false,” he said. Academy“For example, before It is common for women to be referred to as “wives” in censuses and public records.Whether they had a job or paid a salary,” he continued. Goldin’s corrections show that historically, the employment rate of married women was nearly three times higher than recorded in the census.
With organized data came a second piece of evidence: economic growth is not a sufficient condition for reducing income inequality by gender. “The historical participation of women in the American workforce can be described by a U-shaped curve between the years 1800 and 2000,” says the Royal Swedish Academy. Gold’s curve shows that economic growth was constant throughout this period—for example, during the Industrial Revolution Economic growth does not mean improving income inequality.
Finally, there was Goldin A pioneer in introducing the family (marriage and motherhood) into the center of analysis and the protagonist of its explanatory models. One of the main reasons the Harvard professor identified as a variable that improves women’s participation in the labor market The origin of birth control pills, which gave an opportunity for family planning. Goldin found that the pill delayed marriage and childbirth for women, which demanded more care work, so unpaid work hours often fell on women. This allowed them to choose a longer career – from the 1970s, more women began to study economics, law and medicine.
In recent years, the academic devoted himself to investigating another phenomenon: Income gap between men and women It ranges from ten to twenty percent in high-income countries, “even though many of these countries have equal pay laws, women are more educated than men.” According to data from the National Ministry of Women, Gender and Diversity, women in Argentina earned 25 percent less than men in the first quarter of 2022.
What is it about? Goldin identifies one key explanation: increasing the number of unpaid work hours parents are working. “Initial differences in income between men and women are small. However, once the first child arrives, the trend reverses; income drops immediately and does not increase at the same rate for men who have children. Same education and occupation.”
Javier Miele, Refusal
There was an award Especially celebrated by feminist economists from Argentina. In fact, one of the most competitive presidential candidates, Javier Millay, has formally denied this distinction. “The truth is, Miley made an understandable point, which is that after doing ten thousand equations, you can conclude that there are sectors where there is no gender gap, or there are sectors where women earn more than men. The construction industry, but the reality is that even if you look at income gaps, unemployment, underemployment and job insecurity rates , the differences are so bad, it is a study and today, in addition, the Nobel was awarded. Prize for economics”, he celebrates in conversation Page I1 Doctor of Economics and author of Feminist Economics Mercedes D’Alessandro.
“It’s a slap in the face to those who want to assert something the world can prove, without any scientific basis. The wage gap is a scientific and political reality, and all international organizations are already committed to eradicating it. Miley’s likes, she knows, are voting to leave the world, not to enter it. should be,” he adds. Lucia Sirmi OpenUnder-Secretary of Equality Policies, Ministry of Gender.
The impact that Cirmi Obón predicts if Javier Mille becomes president is “much stronger than we think, because it is not just a mathematical question, a theoretical debate, but one that implements violence against women in their daily lives.” Just closing the gender areas, the government will not save anything because only 20 cents of every 100 paise spent by the national government goes to the women’s ministry, but it will have a cascading effect on the gender areas. In manufacturing, sports, union departments, municipalities, provinces and in everyday life, women who suffer violence will now be surrounded by men who are authorized to carry it out,” she warned.
And he adds: “He’s a person who doesn’t want to regulate, he doesn’t believe in regulating markets. So he’s not going to regulate workplace daycare centers being set up, licensing compliance. With, or he’s not going to reform them.” “.
With this award, Claudia Goldin became the third woman to win the Nobel Prize in Economics, among 93 winners. The first American, Eleanor Ostrom, received the award in 2009 for her collaborative work in maintaining common goods or resources, such as orchards and rivers, and their availability for consumption and production in 2009. We believe that we can have a more sustainable future,” they said from the academy.
In 2019, French-American Esther Duflo received it. The economist, who was an advisor to former US President Barack Obama, won the award along with her Indian husband Abhijit Banerjee and American Michael Creamer. “For an Experimental Approach to Global Poverty Alleviation”. The Academy of Sciences has been presenting this award since 1969. She became the youngest winner at the age of 47, becoming only the second woman to receive the award.
Between 1969 (the first year it was awarded) and 2023, 93 people have won the Nobel Prize in Economics. There were 90 males and 3 females. “At the time they’re awarded, the average age is 66.8,” Harry Max Markowitz, a former Nobel laureate in economics, said in an interview. Of the 92 winners, 47 died.
“Additionally, 54 of the 93 winners were born in the United States (57.6 percent of the total) and 22 were born in other countries but immigrated to that country and developed their careers (together, they equaled 82.5 percent). One hundred in total). The remaining 17 were born three in England, two each in Germany, France, Norway and Sweden, and one each in Scotland, Holland, Cyprus, India, the West Indies and Russia,” said Markowitz.